Introduction To Chemically Modified Woods
Wood is a renewable natural resource that is non-toxic and easily accessible. It is used primarily in construction and building. Wood is a natural product that comes from different trees. There are restrictions on its use. Some wood species are susceptible to shrinkage, swelling, and rot. Modification is required to overcome weaknesses related to humidity, low hardness, abrasion resistance and low dimensional stability of wood materials and marine borers.
Acetylation changes wood’s molecular properties. This process is completely safe and non-toxic. The reaction of Acetic anhydride with wood polymers results in the esterification and formation (by-product) of the accessible hydroxyl group in the cell walls. Acetylated wood has a higher natural resistance to brown-rot and white-rot fungi. It also achieves a fiber saturation level, which makes the cell wall highly hydrophobic. It is used primarily for exterior windows, doors and decking.
Properties for acetylated timber
- Water sorption and moisture
- Resistance to biological attack
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The acetylation process is non-toxic and will not leach into the surrounding soil. Vinegar, which is a byproduct of acetylation, can be recycled into the process. Because of its lower swelling and shrinkage, Acetylated Wood improves the durability of coatings.
The wood can also smell like vinegar. Acetylated wood producers can reduce this by applying a finish and wicking out any excess acid.
Wood furfurylation involves impregnating wood using a mixture furfural alcohol, catalysts, and heating to induce polymerization. Furfurylation can be used to increase hardness, biodegradation resistance, and dimensional stability of wood by using a non-toxic furfural alcohol polymer. Wood furfurylation is an industrial process that involves storage, mixing chemicals, curing, drying and cleaning. Furfural alcohol polymer, which is used to treat wood, enhances its mechanical properties, such as hardness and brittleness, elastic, and rupture moduli.
Problems With Acetylated Wood:
The water can seep into the wood. Water can seep in from untreated, poorly treated, or unmodified wood. Rotting, warping and swelling are just some of the problems that can occur.
Demand for Chemically modified woods:
Because they are made with eco-friendly preservatives, chemically modified woods can last for a very long time. The demand for chemically modified woods will increase due to the increasing number of infrastructure projects in both developed and developing nations, as well as many home improvements and renovations. The high price of chemically modified wood and the impact under heavy loads are some of the factors that will limit the demand for this wood.
Acetylation reduces wood’s hygroscopocity, increases dimensional stability, and resists biological attack. These properties have been identified and will be continued to be sought-after in value-added markets. Acetylation of wood is possible because acetic acidide can be produced in many parts of the world.